Important Research Articles

Out-of-Body Experiences: All in the Brain?

Article Index


Alvarado, C. S. (2000). Out-of-body experiences. In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; pages 183-218.

Blackmore, S. J. (1986). Out of body experiences in schizophrenia: A questionnaire survey. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 615-619.

Blanke, O., Ortigue, S., Landis, T., & Seeck, M. (2002). Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions: The part of the brain that can induce out-of-body experiences has been located. Nature, 419, 269-270.

Brugger, P., Regard, M. & Landis, T. (1997). Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 2: 19-38

Gabbard, G. O., & Twemlow, S. W. (1984). With the eyes of the mind: An empirical analysis of out-of-body states. New York: Praeger.

Green, C. (1968). Out-of-the-body experiences. Oxford, England: Institute of Psychophysical Research.

Grusser, O.J. & Landis, T. (1991) Visual Agnosias and Other Disturbances of Visual Perception and Cognition. Amsterdam: Macmillan. Pp. 297-303

Hécaen, H. & Ajuriaguerra, J. (1952). Méconnaissances et Hallucinations Corporelles. Paris: Masson; pages 310-343

Irwin, H. J. (1985). Flight of mind: A psychological study of the out-of-body experience. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Viewable at:

Neppe, V.M. (2002). “Out of body experiences” (OBEs) and brain localization: A perspective. Australian Journal of Parapsychology. (December).

Ornstein, R. (1991). Evolution of consciousness: The origins of the way we think. New York: Touchstone.

Pearson, H. (2002). Electrodes trigger out-of-body experience.

Penfield, W. (1975). The mystery of the mind: A critical study of consciousness and the human brain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.

Ring, K., & Cooper, S. (1997). Near-death and out-of-body experiences in the blind: A study of apparent eyeless vision. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16(2), 101-147.

Ring, K., & Lawrence, M. (1993). Further evidence of veridical perception during near-death experiences. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11(4), 223-229.

Sabom, M. B. (1982). Recollections of death: A medical investigation. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Sabom, M. (1998). Light and Death: One doctor’s fascinating account of near-death experiences. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Sharp, K. C. (1995). After the light: The spiritual path to purpose. New York: Avon. 

Van Lommel, P., van Wees, R., Meyers, V., & Elfferich, I. (2001). Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: A prospective study in the Netherlands. Lancet, 358, 2039-2045.

WGBH (1998). Probe the brain.

Janice Miner Holden, EdD, is a a Professor of counseling at the University of North Texas, and a counselor in private practice, in Texas. Jeff Long, MD, is a radiation oncologist in Washington state. Jason MacLurg, MD, is a psychiatrist in Washington state.

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